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Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy Personnel - Stephen R. Byrn

Stephen R. Byrn, PhD
Charles B. Jordan Professor of Medicinal Chemistry
Phone: 765-714-2808
Fax: 765-494-6545
Lab webpage:

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Picture of Stephen R. Byrn


BA Chemistry, DePauw University, 1966
PhD Organic and Physical Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1970
Post-doctoral, University of California, Los Angeles, Physical Chemistry, 1970-1972


Byrn Lab May 2015Byrn Lab 5-6-15

Byrn Lab - May 2015 (l to r): Curtis Hajec, Ruba Alajlouni, Dr. Daniel Smith, Dr. Stephen Byrn, Haichen Nie,                         & Yang Song

Solid state chemistry of drugs and formulation design.  Study of polymorphs, nanoparticles, liquid crystals, cocrystals, and amorphous materials.  Analytical methods in the solid state including X-ray diffraction and solid state NMR. Molecular basis of manufacturing. Sustainable medicine in Africa.

The solid state chemistry of drugs is being studied to:

  • improve knowledge of the factors that affect this chemistry;
  • develop new analytical methods;
  • develop platforms for formulation design especially as they relate to new formulations that reduce dose;
  • understand the molecular basis of manufacturing, and
  • be able to assess the risk of instability of APIs and formulations.

Of special interest is the use of synchrotron technologies to:

  • analyze amorphous materials and liquid crystals; and
  • use levitated drops and synchrotron radiation to develop platforms to accelerate drug development.

This solid state research has implications for formulation design, the analysis of drugs, the stability of drugs, the control of drug manufacturing, and the development of methods of crystallization. By carrying out research on the solid state chemistry of drugs it is hoped that new approaches for drug analysis including X-ray PDF methods and solid state NMR methods will be developed. Finally, all of this information is used to develop new formulations that provide equivalent bioavailability of marketed drugs at reduced dose.  Research is also ongoing to develop new formulations and manufacturing technologies to increase access to medicines in Africa.

Current Research Projects

  1. Formulation design for reduced dose formulations
  2. Formulation design strategies to accelerate drugs to proof of concept and for translational research
  3. Nanoparticle preparation and analysis
  4. Synchrotron methods to screen for amorphous formulations
  5. Preparation, crystallization, and scale-up of cocrystals
  6. Molecular basis of manufacturing

Dr. Byrn also works with the Industrial and Physical Pharmacy Services Laboratory.

Lab Members:

Christopher L. King (TLI Graduate Student with Dr. Stephen Byrn)
Daniel T. Smith (Senior Research Scientist with Dr. Stephen Byrn)


Dr. Byrn teaches several times a year in Tanzania, Africa. The "Sustainable Medicine in Africa" program was established by Dr. Byrn, Purdue University College of Pharmacy; Sr. Zita Ekeocha and Mr. John Chilunda, St. Luke Foundation /Kilimanjaro School of Pharmacy (SLF/KSP); and Prof. Joseph Fortunak, Howard University. The first course was taught in March 2008.

Purdue’s collaboration with the KSP began when a Nigerian medical missionary, Sister Zita Ekeocha, contacted Dr. Byrn. She ran the  industrial Pharmacy teaching unit at the KSP in Tanzania, and wanted the Purdue College of Pharmacy to send someone to install a manufacturing lab, teach good manufacturing practices (GMP), and manufacture medicines. Byrn worked with Howard University, Sister Zita and the Roman Catholic church, the St. Luke Foundation (a Lutheran organization which operates the KSP), the German government (which provides a lot of the funding and laboratory equipment), and the Tanzanian government to develop and run the program, which officially began in March 2008.

For more information, read:

Making Medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa

Sustainable Medicine program in Tanzania

December 2011 IPPH newsletter

Honors and Credentials

Dr. Stephen R. Byrn received the 2009 David Grant Research Achievement Award in Physical Pharmacy on August 25, 2009.

Representative Publications

Nie, Haichen; Xu, Wei; Ren, Jie; Taylor, Lynne S.; Marsac, Patrick J.; John, Christopher T.; Byrn, Stephen R. Impact of Metallic Stearates on Disproportionation of Hydrochloride Salts of Weak Bases in Solid-State Formulations, Molecular Pharmaceutics (2016), 13(10), 3541-3552

Song, Yang; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Chen, Xin; Su, Ziyang; Nie, Haichen; Lubach, Joseph W.; Smith, Daniel; Byrn, Stephen; Pinal, Rodolfo, Acid-base interactions in amorphous solid dispersions of lumefantrine prepared by spray-drying and hot-melt extrusion using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy International Journal of Pharmaceutics (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2016), 514(2), 456-464.

Song, Yang; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Chen, Xin; Nie, Haichen; Su, Ziyang; Fang, Ke; Yang, Xinghao; Smith, Daniel; Byrn, Stephen R.; Lubach, Joseph W., Acid-Base Interactions of Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid in Amorphous Solid Dispersions Using a Combined UV/FTIR/XPS/ssNMR Study,  Molecular Pharmaceutics (2016), 13(2), 483-492.

Benmore, C. J.; Mou, Q.; Benmore, K. J.; Robinson, D. S.; Neuefeind, J.; Ilavsky, J.; Byrn, S. R; Yarger, J. L., A SAXS-WAXS study of the endothermic transitions in amorphous or supercooled liquid itraconazole Thermochimica Acta (2016), 644, 1-5.

Nie, Haichen; Su, Yongchao; Zhang, Mingtao; Song, Yang; Leone, Anthony; Taylor, Lynne S.; Marsac, Patrick J.; Li, Tonglei; Byrn, Stephen, Solid-State Spectroscopic Investigation of Molecular Interactions between Clofazimine and Hypromellose Phthalate in Amorphous Solid Dispersions, Molecular Pharmaceutics (2016), 13(11), 3964-3975.

de Araujo, Gabriel L. B.; Zeller, Matthias; Smith, Daniel; Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen R, Unexpected Single Crystal Growth Induced by a Wire and New Crystalline Structures of Lapatinib, Crystal Growth & Design (2016), 16(10), 6122-6130.

Braun, Doris E.; Nartowski, Karol P.; Khimyak, Yaroslav Z.; Morris, Kenneth R.;  Byrn, Stephen R ; Griesser, Ulrich J., Structural Properties, Order-Disorder Phenomena, and Phase Stability of Orotic Acid Crystal Forms, Molecular Pharmaceutics (2016), 13(3), 1012-1029

Song, Yang; Yang, Xinghao; Chen, Xin; Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen; Lubach, Joseph W., Investigation of Drug-Excipient Interactions in Lapatinib Amorphous Solid Dispersions Using Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Molecular Pharmaceutics (2015), DOI:10.1021/mp500692a.

Byrn, Stephen; Futran, Maricio; Thomas, Hayden; Jayjock, Eric; Maron, Nicola; Meyer, Robert F.; Myerson, Allan S.; Thien, Michael P.; Trout, Bernhardt L., Achieving Continuous Manufacturing for Final Dosage Formation: Challenges and How to Meet Them. 2014 Continuous Symposium, May 20-21, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2015), 104(3), 792-802.

Song, Yang, Yang, Xinghao, Chen, Xin, Nie, Haichen, Byrn, Stephen, Lubach, Joseph W., Investigation of Drug-Excipient Interactions in Lapatinib Amorphous Solid Dispersions Using Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Molecular Pharmaceutics (2015), 2015 Mar 2;12(3):857-66. doi: 10.1021/mp500692a. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

Byrn, Stephen, Futran, Maricio, Thomas, Hayden, Jayjock, Eric, Maron, Nicola, Meyer, Robert F., Myerson, Allan S., Thien, Michael P., Trout, Bernhardt L., Achieving Continuous Manufacturing for Final Dosage Formation: Challenges and How to Meet Them. 2014 Continuous Symposium, May 20-21, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2015), 104(3), 792-802. 

Fortunak, J.; Byrn, S.R.; Dyson, B.; Ekeocha, Z.; Ellison, T.; King, C.L.; Kulkarni, A.A.; Lee, M.; Conrad, C.; Thompson, K., An efficient, green chemical synthesis of the malaria drug, piperaquine, Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2013), 12(5), 791-798.

Lee, J.; Boerrigter, S.X.M.; Jung, Y.W.; Byun, Y.; Yuk, S.H.; Byrn, S.R.; Lee, E.H, Organic vapor sorption method of isostructural solvates and polymorph of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2013), 50(3-4), 253-262.

Weber, J.K.R.; Benmore, C.J.; Tailor, A.N.; Tumber, S.K.; Neuefeind, J.; Cherry, B.; Yarger, J.L.; Mou, Q.; Weber, W.; Byrn, S.R. A neutron-X-ray, NMR and calorimetric study of glassy Probucol synthesized using containerless techniques, Chemical Physics (2013), 424, 89-92.

Benmore, C.J.; Weber, J.K.R.; Tailor, A.N.; Cherry, B.R.; Yarger, J.L.; Mou, Q.; Weber, W.; Neuefeind, J.; Byrn, S.R., Structural characterization and aging of glassy pharmaceuticals made using acoustic levitation, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2013), 102(4), 1290-1300.  

Gurvich, V.J; Byrn, S.R., NIPTE: a multi-university partnership supporting academic drug development, Drug Discovery Today (2013), 18(19-20), 916-21.

Byrn, Stephen R, and Henck, Jan-Olav, Optimizing Physical Form – opportunities and limitations. Drug Discovery Today: Technologies 9, no. 2 (2012): e73-e78.

Lee EH, Byrn SR, Pinal R. The solution properties of mefenamic acid and a closely related analogue are indistinguishable in polar solvents but significantly different in nonpolar environments. J Pharm Sci. 101, no. 12 (2012): 4529-4539.

Trasi NS, Byrn SR. Mechanically induced amorphization of drugs: a study of the thermal behavior of cryomilled compounds. AAPS PharmSciTech 13, no. 3 (2012): 772-784.

Weber RJ, Benmore CJ, Tumber SK, Tailor AN, Rey CA, Taylor LS, Byrn SR. Acoustic levitation: recent developments and emerging opportunities in biomaterials research. Eur Biophys J. 2012 Apr;41(4):397-403. doi: 10.1007/s00249-011-0767-3. Epub 2011 Oct 30.

Su Z, Luthra S, Krzyzaniak JF, Agra-Kooijman DM, Kumar S, Byrn SR, Shalaev EY. Crystalline, liquid crystalline, and isotropic phases of sodium deoxycholate in water. J Pharm Sci. 2011 Nov;100(11):4836-44. doi: 10.1002/jps.22690. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Byrn SR, Tishmack PA, Milton MJ, van de Velde H.  Analysis of two commercially available bortezomib products: differences in assay of active agent and impurity profile. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011 Jun;12(2):461-7. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

Lee, Eun Hee; Boerrigter, Stephan X. M.; Byrn, Stephen R. Epitaxy of a Structurally Related Compound on the (100) Faces of Flufenamic Acid Form I and III Single Crystals. Crystal Growth & Design.  2010;10(2):518–527. doi: 10.1021/cg900549h. Epub January 8, 2010

Ito, Takanori; Byrn, Stephen; Chen, Xin; Carvajal, M. Teresa. Thermal insight of mechanically activated bile acid powders.   Int J Pharm. 2011 Nov 25;420(1), 68-75.

Emeje, Martins; Isimi, Christiana; Byrn, Stephen; Fortunak, Joseph; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of a new polysaccharide obtained from the fresh fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2011; 10(2):237-246.

Byrn, Stephen R.; Tishmack, Patrick A.; Milton, Mark J.; Velde, Helgi. Analysis of Two Commercially Available Bortezomib Products: Differences in Assay of Active Agent and Impurity Profile.  AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011 Jun;12(2):461-7. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

Yamauchi, Masahiro; Lee, Eun Hee; Otte, Andrew; Byrn, Stephen R.; Carvajal, M. Teresa.  Contrasting the Surface and Bulk Properties of Anhydrate and Dehydrated Hydrate Materials. Crystal Growth & Design. 2011;11(3):692-698. 

Trasi, Niraj S.; Boerrigter, Stephan X. M.; Byrn, Stephen R.; Carvajal, Teresa M. Investigating the effect of dehydration conditions on the compactibility of glucose.  International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2011;406(1-2):55-61. 

Mao, Chen; Prasanth Chamarthy, Sai; Byrn, Stephen R.; Pinal, Rodolfo. Theoretical and Experimental Considerations on the Enthalpic Relaxation of Organic Glasses using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2010;114(1):269-279. 

Emeje, Martins; Olaleye, Olajide; Isimi, Christiana; Fortunak, Joseph; Byrn, Stephen; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus. Oral sustained release tablets of zidovudine using binary blends of natural and synthetic polymers. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (2010), 33(9), 1561-157. 

Ripin, David H. Brown; Teager, David S.; Fortunak, Joseph; Basha, Shaik Mahaboob; Bivins, Nylea; Boddy, Christopher N.; Byrn, Stephen; Catlin, Kelly K.; Houghton, Stephen R.; Jagadeesh, S. Tirumala; et al. Process Improvements for the Manufacture of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate at Commercial Scale. Organic Process Research & Development (2010), 14(5), 1194-1201.  

Lee, Eun Hee; Byrn, Stephen R. Stabilization of metastable flufenamic acid by inclusion of mefenamic acid: solid solution or epilayer? Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2010), 99(9), 4013-4022. 

Engers, David; Teng, Jing; Jimenez-Novoa, Jonathan; Gent, Philip; Hossack, Stuart; Campbell, Cheryl; Thomson, John; Ivanisevic, Igor; Templeton, Alison; Byrn, Stephen; et al. A solid-state approach to enable early development compounds: selection and animal bioavailability studies of an itraconazole amorphous solid dispersion. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2010), 99(9), 3901-3922. 

Li, Hui; Weng, Hong; Stowell, Joseph G.; Morris, Kenneth R.; Byrn, Stephen R. Crystal quality and physical reactivity in the case of flufenamic acid (FFA). Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2010), 99(9), 3839-3848. 

Byrn, Stephen R.; Zografi, George; Chen, Xiaoming. Accelerating proof of concept for small molecule drugs using solid-state chemistry. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2010), 99(9), 3839-3848. 

Atassi, Faraj; Mao, Chen; Masadeh, Ahmad S.; Byrn, Stephen R. Solid-state characterization of amorphous and mesomorphous calcium ketoprofen. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2010), 99(9), 3684-3697.  

Trasi, Niraj S.; Boerrigter, Stephan X. M.; Byrn, Stephen Robert. Investigation of the Milling-Induced Thermal Behavior of Crystalline and Amorphous Griseofulvin. Pharmaceutical Research (2010), 27(7), 1377-1389. 

Lee, Eun Hee; Smith, Daniel T.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Byrn, Stephen R. Characterization and Anisotropic Lattice Expansion/Contraction of Polymorphs of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Crystal Growth & Design (2010), 10(5), 2314-2322. 

Lee, Eun Hee; Boerrigter, Stephan X. M.; Byrn, Stephen R. Epitaxy of a Structurally Related Compound on the (100) Faces of Flufenamic Acid Form I and III Single Crystals. Crystal Growth & Design (2010), 10(2), 518-527. 

Chen, Xiaoming; Stowell, Joseph G.; Morris, Kenneth R.; Byrn, Stephen R. Quantitative study of solid-state acid-base reactions between polymorphs of flufenamic acid and magnesium oxide using X-ray powder diffraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2010), 51(4), 866-874.  

Curriculum Vitae

Click here for a full CV for Stephen R. Byrn. (an Adobe Acrobat file)

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