Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy Personnel - Stephen R. Byrn
EducationBA Chemistry, DePauw University, 1966
PhD Organic and Physical Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1970
Post-doctoral, University of California, Los Angeles, Physical Chemistry, 1970-1972
Solid state chemistry of drugs and formulation design. Study of polymorphs, nanoparticles, liquid crystals, cocrystals, and amorphous materials. Analytical methods in the solid state including X-ray diffraction and solid state NMR. Molecular basis of manufacturing. Sustainable medicine in Africa.
The solid state chemistry of drugs is being studied to:
Of special interest is the use of synchrotron technologies to:
This solid state research has implications for formulation design, the analysis of drugs, the stability of drugs, the control of drug manufacturing, and the development of methods of crystallization. By carrying out research on the solid state chemistry of drugs it is hoped that new approaches for drug analysis including X-ray PDF methods and solid state NMR methods will be developed. Finally, all of this information is used to develop new formulations that provide equivalent bioavailability of marketed drugs at reduced dose. Research is also ongoing to develop new formulations and manufacturing technologies to increase access to medicines in Africa.
Current Research Projects
Dr. Byrn also works with the Industrial and Physical Pharmacy Services Laboratory.
Dr. Byrn teaches several times a year in Tanzania, Africa. The "Sustainable Medicine in Africa" program was established by Dr. Byrn, Purdue University College of Pharmacy; Sr. Zita Ekeocha and Mr. John Chilunda, St. Luke Foundation /Kilimanjaro School of Pharmacy (SLF/KSP); and Prof. Joseph Fortunak, Howard University. The first course was taught in March 2008.
Purdue’s collaboration with the KSP began when a Nigerian medical missionary, Sister Zita Ekeocha, contacted Dr. Byrn. She ran the industrial Pharmacy teaching unit at the KSP in Tanzania, and wanted the Purdue College of Pharmacy to send someone to install a manufacturing lab, teach good manufacturing practices (GMP), and manufacture medicines. Byrn worked with Howard University, Sister Zita and the Roman Catholic church, the St. Luke Foundation (a Lutheran organization which operates the KSP), the German government (which provides a lot of the funding and laboratory equipment), and the Tanzanian government to develop and run the program, which officially began in March 2008.
For more information, read:
Honors and Credentials
Dr. Stephen R. Byrn received the 2009 David Grant Research Achievement Award in Physical Pharmacy on August 25, 2009.
Byrn, Stephen R, and Henck, Jan-Olav, Optimizing Physical Form – opportunities and limitations. Drug Discovery Today: Technologies 9, no. 2 (2012): e73-e78.
Lee EH, Byrn SR, Pinal R. The solution properties of mefenamic acid and a closely related analogue are indistinguishable in polar solvents but significantly different in nonpolar environments. J Pharm Sci. 101, no. 12 (2012): 4529-4539.
Trasi NS, Byrn SR. Mechanically induced amorphization of drugs: a study of the thermal behavior of cryomilled compounds. AAPS PharmSciTech 13, no. 3 (2012): 772-784.
Weber RJ, Benmore CJ, Tumber SK, Tailor AN, Rey CA, Taylor LS, Byrn SR. Acoustic levitation: recent developments and emerging opportunities in biomaterials research. Eur Biophys J. 2012 Apr;41(4):397-403. doi: 10.1007/s00249-011-0767-3. Epub 2011 Oct 30.
Su Z, Luthra S, Krzyzaniak JF, Agra-Kooijman DM, Kumar S, Byrn SR, Shalaev EY. Crystalline, liquid crystalline, and isotropic phases of sodium deoxycholate in water. J Pharm Sci. 2011 Nov;100(11):4836-44. doi: 10.1002/jps.22690. Epub 2011 Jun 30.
Byrn SR, Tishmack PA, Milton MJ, van de Velde H. Analysis of two commercially available bortezomib products: differences in assay of active agent and impurity profile. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011 Jun;12(2):461-7. Epub 2011 Apr 1.
Lee, Eun Hee; Boerrigter, Stephan X. M.; Byrn, Stephen R. Epitaxy of a Structurally Related Compound on the (100) Faces of Flufenamic Acid Form I and III Single Crystals. Crystal Growth & Design. 2010;10(2):518–527. doi: 10.1021/cg900549h. Epub January 8, 2010
Ito, Takanori; Byrn, Stephen; Chen, Xin; Carvajal, M. Teresa. Thermal insight of mechanically activated bile acid powders. Int J Pharm. 2011 Nov 25;420(1), 68-75.
Emeje, Martins; Isimi, Christiana; Byrn, Stephen; Fortunak, Joseph; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of a new polysaccharide obtained from the fresh fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2011; 10(2):237-246.
Byrn, Stephen R.; Tishmack, Patrick A.; Milton, Mark J.; Velde, Helgi. Analysis of Two Commercially Available Bortezomib Products: Differences in Assay of Active Agent and Impurity Profile. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011 Jun;12(2):461-7. Epub 2011 Apr 1.
Yamauchi, Masahiro; Lee, Eun Hee; Otte, Andrew; Byrn, Stephen R.; Carvajal, M. Teresa. Contrasting the Surface and Bulk Properties of Anhydrate and Dehydrated Hydrate Materials. Crystal Growth & Design. 2011;11(3):692-698.
Trasi, Niraj S.; Boerrigter, Stephan X. M.; Byrn, Stephen R.; Carvajal, Teresa M. Investigating the effect of dehydration conditions on the compactibility of glucose. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2011;406(1-2):55-61.
Mao, Chen; Prasanth Chamarthy, Sai; Byrn, Stephen R.; Pinal, Rodolfo. Theoretical and Experimental Considerations on the Enthalpic Relaxation of Organic Glasses using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2010;114(1):269-279.
Emeje, Martins; Olaleye, Olajide; Isimi, Christiana; Fortunak, Joseph; Byrn, Stephen; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus. Oral sustained release tablets of zidovudine using binary blends of natural and synthetic polymers. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (2010), 33(9), 1561-157.
Ripin, David H. Brown; Teager, David S.; Fortunak, Joseph; Basha, Shaik Mahaboob; Bivins, Nylea; Boddy, Christopher N.; Byrn, Stephen; Catlin, Kelly K.; Houghton, Stephen R.; Jagadeesh, S. Tirumala; et al. Process Improvements for the Manufacture of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate at Commercial Scale. Organic Process Research & Development (2010), 14(5), 1194-1201.
Lee, Eun Hee; Byrn, Stephen R. Stabilization of metastable flufenamic acid by inclusion of mefenamic acid: solid solution or epilayer? Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2010), 99(9), 4013-4022.
Engers, David; Teng, Jing; Jimenez-Novoa, Jonathan; Gent, Philip; Hossack, Stuart; Campbell, Cheryl; Thomson, John; Ivanisevic, Igor; Templeton, Alison; Byrn, Stephen; et al. A solid-state approach to enable early development compounds: selection and animal bioavailability studies of an itraconazole amorphous solid dispersion. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2010), 99(9), 3901-3922.
Li, Hui; Weng, Hong; Stowell, Joseph G.; Morris, Kenneth R.; Byrn, Stephen R. Crystal quality and physical reactivity in the case of flufenamic acid (FFA). Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2010), 99(9), 3839-3848.
Byrn, Stephen R.; Zografi, George; Chen, Xiaoming. Accelerating proof of concept for small molecule drugs using solid-state chemistry. From Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2010), 99(9), 3839-3848.
Atassi, Faraj; Mao, Chen; Masadeh, Ahmad S.; Byrn, Stephen R. Solid-state characterization of amorphous and mesomorphous calcium ketoprofen. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2010), 99(9), 3684-3697.
Trasi, Niraj S.; Boerrigter, Stephan X. M.; Byrn, Stephen Robert. Investigation of the Milling-Induced Thermal Behavior of Crystalline and Amorphous Griseofulvin. Pharmaceutical Research (2010), 27(7), 1377-1389.
Lee, Eun Hee; Smith, Daniel T.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Byrn, Stephen R. Characterization and Anisotropic Lattice Expansion/Contraction of Polymorphs of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Crystal Growth & Design (2010), 10(5), 2314-2322.
Lee, Eun Hee; Boerrigter, Stephan X. M.; Byrn, Stephen R. Epitaxy of a Structurally Related Compound on the (100) Faces of Flufenamic Acid Form I and III Single Crystals. Crystal Growth & Design (2010), 10(2), 518-527.
Chen, Xiaoming; Stowell, Joseph G.; Morris, Kenneth R.; Byrn, Stephen R. Quantitative study of solid-state acid-base reactions between polymorphs of flufenamic acid and magnesium oxide using X-ray powder diffraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2010), 51(4), 866-874.
Joshi, Vidya; Morris, Kenneth R.; Byrn, Stephen R.; Carvajal, M. Teresa. Evaluation of the Use of Ea (Activation Energy) as a Quantitative Indicator of Physical Stability of Indomethacin Solvates: Methanolate and Tertiary Butyl Alcohol Solvate. Crystal Growth & Design 9(8), 3359-3366. (2009).
Lee, Eun Hee; Boerrigter, Stephan X.; Rumondor, Alfred C.; Chamarthy, Sai P.; and Byrn, Stephen R. Formation and Solid-State Characterization of a Salt-Induced Metastable Polymorph of Flufenamic Acid. Crystal Growth and Design, 8(1), 91-97 (2008).
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This record was last updated on May 2, 2013 at 2:02 PM